Wednesday, 20 November 2013

Negative sentence in simple past tense in Gujarati

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It is easy to create negative sentence in simple past tense from corresponding positive sentence. 

You just need to say "નથી"(nathi) before or after the verb to negate it. 

Below I have given pairs of positive and negative sentences.


(If boy says) I laughed -> હું હસ્યો  (huM hasyo )

(If boy says) I did not laugh -> હું નથી હસ્યો  (huM nathi hasyo )


(If said to one boy) You walked -> તું ચાલ્યો   (tuM chAlyo  )

(If said to one boy) You did not walk -> તું નથી ચાલ્યો   (tuM nathi chAlyo  )

(If girl says) I laughed ->હું હસી  (huM hasI)

(If girl says) I did not laugh ->હું નથી હસી  (huM nathi hasI)


(If said to one girl) You walked -> તું ચાલી  (tuM chAlI )

(If said to one girl) You did not walk -> તું નથી ચાલી  (tuM nathi chAlI )

They said -> 
તેઓ બોલ્યાં  (teo bolyAM )
They did not say -> તેઓ નથી બોલ્યાં  (teo nathi bolyAM )

He(polite) sat -> તેઓ બેસ્યા  (teo besyA)

He(polite) did not seat  -> તેઓ નથી બેસ્યા  (teo nathi besyA)

I saw a boy -> મેં એક છોકરો જોયો (meM ek laDakA joyo )

I did not see a boy -> મેં એક છોકરો નથી જોયો (meM ek laDakA nathi joyo )

I saw a girl -> મેં એક છોકરી જોઈ  (meM ek ChokarIjoI )

did not  see a girl -> મેં એક છોકરી નથી જોઈ  (meM ek ChokarI nathi joI )

You saw a tree-> તેં એક ઝાડ જોયું  (meM ek laDakA joyuM)

You did not see a tree-> તેં એક ઝાડ નથી જોયું  (teM ek laDakA nathi joyuM)

People ate tamarind -> લોકોએ આમલી ખાધી ( lokoe AmalI khAdhI )

People did not eat tamarind -> લોકોએ આમલી નથી ખાધી ( lokoe AmalI nathi khAdhI )

You ate many "Dahiwada"s -> 
તેં બહુ દહિવડા ખાધાં (teM bahu dahivaDA khAdhAM)
You did not eat many "Dahiwada"s -> તેં બહુ દહિવડા નથી ખાધાં (teM bahu dahivaDA nathi khAdhAM)

I drank water -> મેં પાણી પીધું(meM pANI pIdhuM)

did not drink water -> મેં પાણી નથી પીધું(meM pANI nathi pIdhuM)

He took steps -> એણે પગલાં લીધાં  (eNe pagalAM lIdhAM )

He did not take steps -> એણે પગલાં નથી લીધાં  (eNe pagalAM nathi lIdhAM )


You can put નથી either before verb or after verb.

So  
એણે પગલાં નથી લીધાં  (eNe pagalAM nathi lIdhAM ) is same as એણે પગલાં લીધાં નથી  (eNe pagalAM lIdhAM nathi )
મેં પાણી નથી પીધું(meM pANI nathi pIdhuM) is same as મેં પાણી પીધું નથી (meM pANI pIdhuM nathi ) 



******* Form of હોવું  (“hovuM”) in NEGATIVE simple past tense ******

Form of હોવું  (“hovuM”) in NEGATIVE simple past tense are created by saying ન(n) before positive form. 
If they are combined together then instead of હ(h) we use has હો(ho)
So,  ન(n) + હતો (hato )   combined as નહોતો (nahoto)
Refer below table for all forms


English Pronoun
Gujarati Pronoun
Form of 
હોવું  (“hovuM”)
in positive simple past tense
Form of 
હોવું  (“hovuM”)
in NEGATIVE
simple past tense
Masculine Singular Pronouns
I, You, He, This, That
હું  (huM), 
તું  (tuM), 
આ/એ/તે 
(A/e/te)


પુલ્લિંગી
હતો (hato )
 હતો (na hato ) /
નહોતો (nahoto)
Feminine  Singular Pronouns
I, You, She, This, That
હું  (huM), 
તું  (tuM), 
આ/એ/તે 
(A/e/te)


સ્ત્રિલિંગી
હતી (hatI )



 હતી (na hatI ) /
નહોતી (nahotI)


Neuter Singular Pronouns. Generally only in third person
It, This, That
આ/એ/તે 
(A/e/te)


નપુસકલિંગ


હતું (hatuM )


 હતું (na hatuM ) /
નહોતું (nahotuM)

Masculine plural pronouns
We, You(plural), They, ThoseYou(plural)
અમે  (ame), 
આપણે  (ApaNe),
તમે (tame ) 
તેઓ/ એ/તે 
(teo /e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી
હતા (hatA)
 હતા (na hatA) /
નહોતા (nahotA)


First & Second person plural for Feminine
and Polite form
We, You(plural),

અમે  (ame), 
આપણે  (ApaNe),
તમે (tame ) , 
તેઓ(teo)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી
હતાં (hatAM)
 હતાં (na hatAM) /
નહોતાં (nahotAM)
Third plural for Feminine
They/Those/These
તેઓ/ એ/તે 
(teo /e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી 
હતી (hatI )


 હતી (na hatI ) /
નહોતી (nahotI)


Plurals in neuter gender
Generally only in third person

એ/તે 
(teo /e/te)


હતાં (hatAM)
 હતાં (na hatAM) /
નહોતાં (nahotAM)

(If boy says) I was there -> હું ત્યાં હતો   (huM tyAM hato )
(If boy says) I was not there ->હું ત્યાં નહોતો/ન હતો (huM tyAM nahoto/na hato  )

(If said to to a girl) You were beautiful -> તું સુંદર હતી  (tuM suMdar hatI)
(If said to to a girl) You were not beautiful -> તું સુંદર નહોતી/ન હતી (tuM suMdar nahotI/na hatI)

He(polite) was present -> તેઓ હાજર હતા  (teo hAjar hatA)
He(polite) was not present -> તેઓ હાજર નહોતા/ન હતા (teo hAjar nahotA/na hatA)

She(polite) was present -> તેઓ હાજર હતાં  (teo hAjar hatAM)

She(polite) was not present -> તેઓ હાજર નહોતાં /ન હતાં (teo hAjar nahotAM/na                                                 hatAM )

2nd way) By ending positive sentence with નહિં(nahiM) to make it negative
(If boy says) I was not there ->હું ત્યાં હતો નહિં  (huM tyAM hato nahiM)
(If said to to a girl) You were not beautiful -> તું સુંદર હતી નહિં  (tuM suMdar hatI nahiM )
He(polite) was not present -> તેઓ હાજર હતા નહિં (teo hAjar hatA nahiM)

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6V_alEoIHo


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
***************************************************************

2 comments:

  1. Hi,

    just wanted to point out a typo on this one:

    You saw a tree-> તેં એક ઝાડ જોયું (meM ek laDakA joyuM)
    You did not see a tree-> તેં એક ઝાડ નથી જોયું (meM ek laDakA nathi joyuM)

    I think those should be 'Te ek...' not 'meM ek...'

    ReplyDelete