Sunday, 10 November 2013

Pronouns and Articles in Gujarati

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati  Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Let us learn pronouns today. Below chart has the list.


As I would always say, go through the list once. But do not get daunted by the details. When we will start preparing sentence, come back to chart and get the required pronoun.

Using them frequently will make you familiar. And afterwards you will not need to come back this chart.


Pronoun in English
Pronoun in Gujarati
Transliteration
I
હું
huM
we
અમે
ame
we ( listenr including)
આપણે
ApaNe
You (singular)
તું
tuM
You (plural)
તમે
tame
He /She /It
(when person or thing is near )
/ This (m./f/n.)
/ These (m./f/n.)
A
He /She /It
(when person or thing is far )
/ That (m./f./n.)
/ Those (m./f./n.)
 
તે (more polite than )
e
te
They (for person )
તેઓ
teo
They (for nonliving thing)
એ  
e



Difference between અમે(ame) and આપણે(ApaNe)
અમે(ame) is used when listener is not included in referred group.
e.g if a boy went to a party with his family. Then he will tell his friend as
  We went to party  -> અમે પાર્ટીમાં ગયા હતા (ame pArTImAM gayA hatA )  
Here listeners i.e. friends are not included in the “WE”

Same boy will tell to his family member
We went to party ->  આપણે પાર્ટીમાં ગયા હતા (ApaNe pArTImAM gayA hatA )  
Here the listener  i.e. family member is included in “we”

As you can see third person pronouns, are same for all genders & multiplicity.
Consider examples and observe pronouns :- 


this/he is my son          ->   મારો દીકરો છે  ( A mAro dIkaro Che )
this/she is my daughter ->   મારી દીકરી છે   ( A mArI dIkarI Che )
this/it is my book          ->   મારું પુસ્તક છે  ( A mAruM pustak Che )

that/he is my son         ->   મારો દીકરો છે  ( E mAro dIkaro Che )  OR
                                        તે મારો દીકરો છે  ( te mAro dIkaro Che )
that/she is my daughter ->  મારી દીકરી છે E mArI dIkarI Che )  OR 
                                        તે મારી દીકરી છે ( te mArI dIkarI Che )
that/it is my book.         ->  મારું પુસ્તક છે  mAruM pustak Che )   OR 
                                        તે મારું પુસ્તક છે  ( te mAruM pustak Che )


these are my sons        ->  મારા દીકરા છે  ( A mArA dIkarA Che )
these are my daughters ->   મારી દીકરીઓ છે ( A mArI dIkarIo Che )
these are my books       ->  મારાં પુસ્તકો છે ( A mArAM pustako Che )

those are my sons         -> એ મારા દીકરા છે   ( E mArA dIkarA Che )
those are my daughters ->  મારી દીકરીઓ છે E mArI dIkarIo Che )
those are my books        ->  મારાં પુસ્તકો છે mArAM pustako Che )

they are my sons        -> તેઓ મારા દીકરા છે   ( teo mArA dIkarA Che )
they are my daughters -> તેઓ મારી દીકરીઓ છે ( teo mArI dIkarIo Che )
they are my books        ->  મારાં પુસ્તકો છે mArAM pustako Che )

એ(e) is used rather than તેઓ(teo) when pronoun is used with noun; e.g.
They are Indian -> તેઓ ભારતીય છે (teo bhAratIy Che )  can also be said as 
એ લોકો ભારતીય છે ( e loko bhAratIy Che ). 
એ લોકો(e loko) which literally means "those people" is frequently used to mean "they". Similarly તમે લોકો(tame loko) means you(plural).



********************* Articles  ************************* 
In English there are three article "a', "an" and "The". In Gujarati there is no custom of using such articles. 
"This is horse" and "This is a horse" will be translated in Gujarati same way "
આ ઘોડો છે"(A ghoDo Che )
"This is ant" and "This is an ant" will be translated in Gujarati same way "
આ કીડી છે"(A kIDI Che )
"
The Sun", "The moon" will be translated as if written just "sun", "moon" without article "The" i.e. સૂર્ય(sUrya), 
ચંદ્ર(chaMdra)


Listen examples in this lesson at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoqglW_XQgQ


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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2 comments:

  1. Hi Kaushik,

    I had a question regarding 'I' and when one is supposed to use "HuM" or "Mane".

    I often hear family saying something like "mane khaman khavuM" instead of "Hu(or HuM) khaman khavuM". When do we use either of them? I am very grateful for your website, and once I am a few more lessons in, I will definitely let you know about my experience!

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    Replies
    1. I think this lesson will help you
      http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/using-plurals-to-indicate-respect.html

      I will you be sending me mail.

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

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