Saturday, 16 November 2013

Simple Past tense in Gujarati - Part 1

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In previous lesson (
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/11/simple-past-tense-of-to-be-in-gujarati.html) we studied simple Past tense of verb "To Be". Let us see the simple past tense of other verbs.


In Simple past tense there 2 types of statements.


Type 1) Verbs which require nouns/objective i.e. transitive verbs
e.g. I ate mango.
Here "I" is subjective/Nominative and "mango" is objective.
In Gujarati such verbs are called સકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(sakarmak kriyApad)

Type 2) Verbs which do not require nouns/objective i.e. intransitive verbs
e.g. I speak.
Here "I" is subjective (Nominative) . The verb speak does not need noun/objective
In Gujarati such verbs are called કર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad)

For 1st kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of objective
And in 2nd kind of statement verb is formed according to gender of Pronoun/subjective/Nominative

Suffixes are as follows



English Pronoun
Gujarati Pronoun
Suffix to verb
Masculine Singular Pronouns
I, You, He, This, That
હું  (huM), તું  (tuM), આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)


પુલ્લિંગી
યો (yo )
Feminine  Singular Pronouns
I, You, She, This, That
હું  (huM), તું  (tuM), આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)


સ્ત્રિલિંગી
 (I)

Neuter Singular Pronouns. Generally only in third person
It, This, That
આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)


નપુસકલિંગ


યું (yuM )

Masculine plural pronouns
We, You(plural), They, Those, You(plural)
અમે  (ame), આપણે  (ApaNe),
તમે (tame ) 
તેઓ/ એ/તે  (teo /e/te)

પુલ્લિંગી
યા (yA)
First & Second person plural for Feminine
We, You(plural) and Polite form

અમે  (ame), આપણે  (ApaNe),
તમે (tame ) , તેઓ(teo)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી
યાં (yAM)
Third plural for Feminine
They/Those/These
તેઓ/આ/એ/તે  (teo /A/e/te)

સ્ત્રિલિંગી 
 (I)

Plurals in neuter gender
Generally only in third person
Or Group of different gender perosns

આ/એ/તે  (A/e/te)


યાં (yAM)

Note that these suffixes follow ઓ-ઈ-ઉં-આ-ઈ-આં (o-I-uM-A-I-AM ) યો-ઈ-યું-યા-ઈ-યાં ( yo-I-yuM-yA-I-yAM ) rule

Note that suffixes merge with last consonant of the verb stem 
So, 
બોલ(bol) + યો(yo) = બોલ્યો(bolyo )  and Not બોલયો  (bolayo)
ચાલ(chAl ) + યું(yuM ) = ચાલ્યું (chAlyuM ) an NOT ચાલયું ( chAlayuM)


Examples of 
કર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad) i.e. verb that do not need noun

1) (If boy says) I laughed 

Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is masculine singular. So we use suffix યો (yo ).  હસ(has) + યો(yo) = હસ્યો (hasyo)
(If boy says) I laughed -> હું હસ્યો  (huM hasyo )


2) Similarly,

(If said to one boy) You walked -> તું ચાલ્યો   (tuM chAlyo  )

3) (If girl says) I laughed 
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is feminine singular. So we use suffix ઈ (I).   હસ(has) +  ઈ (I) = હસી  (hasI)
(If girl says) I laughed ->હું હસી  (huM hasI)

4) Similarly,

(If said to one girl) You walked -> તું ચાલી  (tuM chAlI )

5) They said 

Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is plural. As gender is unknown we will use neuter plural form i.e. યાં (yAM).
બોલ(bol) +  યાં (yAM) = બોલ્યાં(bolyAM)
They said -> તેઓ બોલ્યાં  (teo bolyAM )

6) He(polite form) sat 
Here કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is polite form of pronoun. So we use suffix યા (yA).   બેસ(bes) +  યા (yA) = બેસ્યા  (besyA)
He(polite) sat -> તેઓ બેસ્યા  (teo besyA)


7) This girl said -> આ છોકરી બોલી ( A ChokarI bolI  )

8) Those girls said -> એ છોકરીઓ બોલી  ( e ChokarIo bolI  )



Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-QCLwjGEdc 



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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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5 comments:

  1. How would I know which verbs in past tense follow yo I yum ya I yam and which ones follow o I um a I am. As previous lesson is hato hati hatum thanks

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  2. It's OK I get it now iv worked it out 😊

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Godd job !! Are you learning Gujarati using my blog ?

      - Kaushik

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  3. Aabhar Kaushik Lele. This stuff is very useful for me. It gives me information about grammar in addition to my Gujarati course.

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    Replies
    1. HI Lukas,
      Thanks for your comment. Its good to know that you found it useful.
      I would like to know more about your Gujarati learning and experience with my blog. I would like to know more of your Marathi learning and more feedback about my blog from you.
      Can you please drop me a mail at learnMarathiFast@gmail.com
      (ID is same for my both Marathi and Gujarati blog)

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

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