Sunday, 17 November 2013

Simple Past tense in Gujarati - Part 2

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In previous lesson (http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/simple-past-tense-in-gujarati-part-1.html) we studied simple past tense of કર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(akarmak kriyApad) i.e. verb that do not need noun

In this lesson let us see examples of સકર્મક ક્રિયાપદ(sakarmak kriyApad) i.e. verb that needs noun. Two rules to be noted :-

1) Suffix is decided as per gender and multiplicity of noun
2) Form of કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action is changed. 
એ(e) is appended to proper noun and generally ણે (Ne) is appended to pronoun. But few pronouns have different forms. So I have listed them all below 



Pronoun in English
Pronoun in Gujarati
Form of pronoun in past tense
I
હું (huM)
મેં  (meM )
we
અમે (ame)
અમે (ame )
we ( listener including)
આપણે(ApaNe)
આપણે  (ApaNe )
You (singular)
તું(tuM)
તેં  (teM )
You (plural)
તમે(tame)
તમે(tame)
He /She /It
(when person or thing is near )
/ This (m./f/n.)
આ(A)
આણે   (ANe  )
He /She /It
(when person or thing is far )
/ That (m./f./n.)
  (e)
તે(te) 
એણે  (eNe )
તેણે  (teNe )
They / Those / These (for person )
આ(A)  

  (e)



તેઓ(teo)
આમણે (AmaNe )

એમણે(emaNe)


તેઓએ  (teoe)/
તેમણે  (temaNe )
They / Those / These (for nonliving thing)
 (e)
એણે  (eNe )


Suffixes :- 

Gender & Multiplicity of object
Suffix to verb
Masculine Singular
યો (yo )
Feminine Singular
ઈ (I)
Neuter Singular
યું (yuM )
Masculine Plural
યા (yA) 
Feminine plural
ઈ (I)
Neuter plural 
યાં (yAM)

This is same as we discussed in ઓ-ઈ-ઉં-આ-ઈ-આં (o-I-uM-A-I-AM ) યો-ઈ-યું-યા-ઈ-યાં ( yo-I-yuM-yA-I-yAM ) rule


I saw a boy -> મેં છોકરો જોયો (meM Chokaro joyo )

Here doer of actions is "I". It's past tense form is મેં  (meM ).
Object is "boy" which is masculine singular so, suffix for verb is યો (yo )
જો(jo) + યો (yo )= જોયો (joyo )

I saw a girl -> મેં
છોકરી જોઈ  (meM ChokarI joI )
Here doer of actions is "I". It's past tense form is મેં  (meM ).
Object is "girl" which is feminine singular so, suffix for verb is ઈ (I)
જો(jo) + ઈ (I) = જો (joI )

I saw girls -> મેં છોકરીઓ જોઈ  (meM ChokarIo  joI )
Here doer of actions is "I". It's past tense form is મેં  (meM ).
Object is "girls" which is feminine plural so, suffix for verb is ઈ (I)
જો(jo) + ઈ (I) = જોઈ  (joI )

I saw a tree-> મેં ઝાડ જોયું  (meM jhAD joyuM )

Here doer of actions is "I". It's past tense form is મેં  (meM ).
Object is "tree" which is neuter singular so, suffix for verb is યું (yuM )
જો(jo) +યું (yuM ) = જોયું  (joyuM)

Example of polite form. If you are talking about father; you will use for "તેમણે"
He bought cycle -> તેમણે સાયકલ ખરીદી (teoe/temaNe sAyakal kharIdI)

Similar sentence with "you(singular) can be formed using past tense form of તું(tuM) which is તેં  (teM )

You saw a boy -> તેં છોકરો જોયો (teM Chokaro joyo )
You saw a girl -> તેં છોકરી જોઈ  (teM ChokarI joI )
You saw a tree-> તેં ઝાડ જોયું  (teM jhAD joyuM)

Similar sentences  with proper noun can be formed by appending એ(e) to proper noun. If ending vowel is અ(a) then એ(e) is mixed with last consonant.

To create sentences for boy named રામ(Ram) we will use its form
રામ(ram) + એ(e)  -> રામે (rAme)
So sentences will be 

Ram saw a boy -> રામે છોકરો જોયો (rAme Chokaro joyo )
Ram saw a girl -> રામે છોકરી  જોઈ  (rAme ChokarI joI )
Ram saw a tree-> રામે ઝાડ જોયું  (rAme jhAD joyuM)

Similarly such sentences for girl named સીતા(sItA) will be 
સીતા(sItA) +  એ(e)  ->  સીતાએ ( sItAe )
As word is not ending with અ(a) so એ(e) is appended separately.

Sita saw a boy -> સીતાએ છોકરો જોયો (sITAe Chokaro joyo )

Sita saw a girl -> સીતાએ છોકરી  જોઈ  (sITAe ChokarI joI )
Sita saw a tree-> સીતાએ ઝાડ જોયું  (sITAe jhAD joyuM)

Exceptions:-

1) For verb જવું(javuM) the stem itself changes from જ(ja) to ગ(ga). So form become ગયો(gayo), ગઈ(gaI), ગયું(gayuM), ગયાં(gayAM), ગયાં(gayA)

2) For verb બેસવું(besavuM) feminine singular and plural is not 
બેસી(besI) it is બેઠી(beThI)



There are few verbs in which suffixes are different. Suffixes are 

Gender & Multiplicity of object
Suffix to verb
Masculine Singular

ધો
 (dho)
Feminine Singular

ધી(dhI)
Neuter Singular

ધું(dhuM )
Masculine Plural

ધા (dhA) 
Feminine plural

ધી(dhI)
Neuter plural 

ધાં (dhAM)



Such verbs are 
To Eat :-ખાવું ( khAvuM )
To Drink :- પીવું (pIvuM)
To take :- લેવું (levuM )

People ate tamarind -> લોકોએ આમલી ખાધી ( lokoe AmalI khAdhI )

You ate many "Dahiwada"s -> તેં બહુ દહિવડા ખાધા (teM bahu dahivaDA khAdhAM)
I drank water -> મેં પાણી પીધું(meM pANI pIdhuM)
He took steps -> એણે પગલાં લીધાં  (eNe pagalAM lIdhAM )

In past tense the stem of verb લેવું (levuM ) changes from લે(le) to લી(lI). So forms become લીધો(lIdho), લીધી(lIdhI ),  લીધું(lIdhuM ) લીધાં(lIdhAM )


Listen examples in this lesson at

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xf0D9s22XZ4



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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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10 comments:

  1. Thank you ! Suffix to verb ,it is brilliant

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Dhaval. I would like to know your more feedback. Can you please mail me at learnMarathifast@gmail.com

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  2. DEAR sRI kOUSHIK,

    I am chandrashekhar from NJ US. both verbs ee and want sound the same. how do we distinguish?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello Chandrashekhar,
      I could not understand your question clearly ? Can you please elaborate.

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    2. I think he means the word "see" and "want" sound the same.
      ie. See = joya , want = joya.
      I am confused by this too.

      If i said "mane pastak joyo", how would someone know if I am saying "I see a book" or "I want a book"?

      Delete
    3. જોયા(joyA) is not form verb want. So it should be always sentence with "see".

      Form of verbs are actually different. But in case you can not recognize the difference when someone is speaking then you should notice the form of subject (kartA).

      In sentences with "want" forms are subject are i.e. "mAre","tAre","amAre" etc.

      In sentence with "to see" forms if subject will be "huM","tuM","e" etc. And in past tense different forms.

      So that is main differentiating factor
      I want a book -> મારે પુસ્તક જોઈએ (mAre pustak joIe)
      I saw book -> હું પુસ્તક જોઉં છું (huM pustak jouM ChuM)
      I saw video -> મેં વીડિયો જોયો (meM vIDiyo joyo)

      I hope it helps. May I know your name please. Are you learning Gujarati using my blog ?

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

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    4. This is a fantastic explanation! Thank you so much!
      And yes, I am learning it using your blog/videos. I am born Gujarati, but was not raised to speak it and never learned. Now I am trying to learn after having difficulties conversing with other GUjarati people.

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    5. You are welcome. Happy to have helped you.

      I would like to know more about your Gujarati learning and experience of my blog so far. Can you please mail me on learnMarathiFast@gmail.com (ID is same for my both Marathi & Gujarati blog)

      Thanks,
      Kaushik

      Delete
    6. I meant verbs see and want. I misspelled

      Delete
    7. I hope you got answer in my previous comment.

      Delete