Monday, 23 December 2013

Comparison and degrees of comparison in Gujarati

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In English there are three degrees of comparison viz. positive, comparative and superlative.
Generally we prefix “more” and “most” to adjective for comparative and superlative degree.
Sometimes there are different words to indicate each degree e.g. good-better-best
Bad-worse-worst  , tall- taller-tallest etc.

In Gujarati, we do not have this second way of comparison. i.e. adjectives do not change as per degree.  Only words indicating degree are prefixed.

Example :-
Bitter  :- કડવો  (kaDavo )
More bitter :-  વધુ  કડવો  (vadhu kaDavo )
Most bitter :-   સૌથી કડવો /સૌથી વધુ કડવો(sauthI kaDavo / sauthI vadhu kaDavo )

tall  :-  ઊંચો (UMcho)
taller:-  વધુ  ઊંચો   (vadhu UMcho )
tallest :-   સૌથી ઊંચો  /સૌથી વધુ ઊંચો (sauthI UMcho/ sauthI vadhu UMcho)


Good :-  સારું  (sAruM)
better :-  
વધુ  સારું     (vadhu sAruM)
best  :-  સૌથી સારું /સૌથી વધુ સારું  (sauthI sAruMsauthI vadhu sAruM)

In English we use word "than" while comparison, similarly in Gujarati we use word કરતાં (karatAM). When using this word with pronoun you can consider it as preposition ના કરતાં (nA karatAM ), so that it will be appended to form of pronoun. 

Refer table of forms of pronouns. Refer column named "For pronoun with
ના(nA)" 
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/learn-prepositions-in-gujarati-language.html

Examples will make it clear. 

Sentence formation is in second/comparative degree is :-

Noun of comparison   
(subject)
Other object with preposition "ના કરતાં"(nA karatAM)
વધુ(vadhu)
adjective
forms of હોવું(hovuMas per subject and tense
એ (e)

મારા કરતાં (mArA karatAM)
વધુ(vadhu)
ઊંચો(UMcho)
છે(Che)

Sometimes while speaking વધુ can be omitted.
When you are indicating something lesser, shorter etc.વધુ is omitted.

Let us take full example sentence
He is taller than me :- એ મારા કરતાં વધુ ઊંચો છે (e mArA karatAM vadhu UMcho Che)
I am shorter than you :- હું તારા કરતાં ઠિંગણો છું (huM tArA karatAM ThiMgaNo ChuM)
They were happier than now :- તેઓ અત્યાર કરતાં વધુ ખુશ હતાં(teo atyAr karatAM vadhu khush hatAM)
Ram is cleverer than kaushik -> રામ કૌશિક કરતાં વધુ હોશિયાર છે (rAm kaushik karatAM vadhu hoshiyAr Che)
kaushik is cleverer than Ram -> કૌશિક રામ કરતાં વધુ હોશિયાર છે (rAm kaushik karatAM vadhu hoshiyAr Che)

Sentence formation in superlative degree :-
Noun of comparison   
(subject)
સૌથી (sauthI) /
સૌથી વધુ (sauthI vadhu)
adjective
forms of હોવું(hovuM)as per subject and tense
એ (e)

સૌથી (sauthI) /
સૌથી વધુ (sauthI vadhu)


ઊંચો(UMcho)
છે(Che)

Generally while speaking વધુ can be omitted.
When you are indicating something least, shortest etc.વધુ is omitted.

He is best:- એ સૌથી સારો છે (e sauthI sAro Che)
Everest is tallest peak :- એવરેસ્ટ શિખર સૌથી વધુ ઉંચો છે(evaresT shikhar sauthI vadhu uMcho Che)
She was the youngest player :-  એ સૌથી નાની ખેલાડી હતી (e sauthI nAnI khelADI hatI)
Your voice is loudest of all :- તારો આવાજ સૌથી વધુ મોટો છે (tAro AvAj sauthI vadhu moTo Che)

Comparison can be done other way 
e.g. "She is less tall than me", "It is less effective than Ayurvedik medicine" etc.
"Less" in Gujarati ઓછો(oCho). 
Sentence structure is same as seen above, only instead of વધુ(vadhu) we will use form of ઓછો(oCho).

As it is adjective ending with ઓ(o), it changes are per gender an multiplicity as seen in
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/12/adjectives-in-gujarati.html
So forms are ઓછો-ઓછી-ઓછું-ઓછા-ઓછી-ઓછાં (oCho-oChI-oChuM-oChA-oChI-oChAM). Form will be decided based on gender and multiplicity of person/object being compared.


She is less tall than me ->  એ મારા કરતાં ઓછી ઉંચી છે (e mArA karatAM oChI uMchI Che )
He is less tall than me ->   એ મારા કરતાં ઓછો ઉંચો છે (e mArA karatAM oChI uMchI Che )

This medicine is less effective that XYZ ->  
આ ઓસડ XYZ કરતાં ઓછું અસરકારક છે (A osaD XYZ karatAM oChuM asarakArak Che 
or
આ દવા XYZ કરતાં ઓછી અસરકારક છે (A davA XYZ karatAM oChI asarakArak Che )

ઓસડ(osaD) is neuter-singular where as દવા(davA) is feminine singular.

Listen in this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6PRVKCRmEJg



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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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