Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Using verb "To Know" in Gujarati

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"To know" in Gujarati is "ખબર હોવું"(khabar hovuM)

Consider sentence “I know your name”. This can also be said as “Your name is known to me”.
Gujarati sentence formation is some what similar to this second way.
Form of verb "ખબર હોવું"(khabar hovuM) will be created as per gender and multiplicity of object(which is known). 

Sentence structure is
Form of noun/pronoun with preposition "To"
e.g. “to me”, “to him”
object
ખબર(khabar)
form of “હોવું” (hovuM) as per gender, multiplicity of object and tense
મને (mane)

સરનામું (saranAmuM )
ખબર(khabar)
છે (Che)



Your name is known to me -> મને તારું નામ ખબર છે  (mane tAruM nAm khabar Che)
She knows his address -> એને તેનું સરનામું  ખબર છે  (ene tenuM saranAmuM  khabar Che)
She knew his address ->  એને તેનું સરનામું  ખબર હતું  (ene tenuM saranAmuM  khabar hatuM)


Do you know it ? -> શું તને ખબર છે ?  (shuM tane khabar Che ?)
Did she know that ? શું તેને ખબર હતી ?  (shuM tene khabar hatI ?)

Negative sentences:-
Your name is not known to me -> મને તારું નામ ખબર નથી  (mane tAruM nAm khabar nathI)
She does not know his address -> એને તેનું સરનામું ખબર નથી  (ene tenuM saranAmuM  khabar nathI)
She did not know his address ->  એને તેનું સરનામું ખબર નહોતું (ene tenuM saranAmuM  khabar nahotuM)

Don't you know it ? -> શું તને ખબર નથી  ?  (shuM tane khabar nathI?)
Did she not know that ? શું તેને ખબર નહોતી?  (shuM tene khabar nahotI ?)

There is another usage of “To know” in English.
Consider sentences :- 
I know swimming.
I know Japanese.
I know cooking.
Do you know playing cricket ?

(Note :- A British English speaker informed me that these sentence should be I know how to swim, I know how to cook, Do you know how to play cricket etc.They should follow "I know how to.." structure. I assume that it is difference in Indian English and British English. Also above sentence structure match more with corresponding Gujarati sentences. So I have not changed the examples to "I know how to..." kind. So please consider the sentences as per your way of English speaking. I hope this explanation helps.)

Here “know” is used to indicate ability to carry out some task/art etc.
In such type of sentence in Gujarati we will use verb “આવડવું” (AvaDavuM), instead of  "ખબર હોવું"(khabar hovuM).

Sentence structure is

Form of noun/pronoun with preposition "To"
e.g. “to me”, “to him”
object
main verb+ તા (tA)
form of “આવડવું” (AvaDavuM) as per object. If object is not present then Neuter-singular form 
મને (mane)

ગુજરાતી (gujarAtI )
બોલતા (bolatA )
આવડે છે(AvaDe Che)


Examples :-
I know eating cake :-  મને કેક ખાતા આવડે છે  (mane kek khAtA AvaDe Che)
You know swimming :-  તને તરતા આવડે છે  (tane taratA AvaDe Che)
He knows Japanese   :-  એને જાપાનીઝ બોલતા આવડે છે  (ene jApAnIjh bolatA AvaDe Che)
He(polite) knows cooking    :- તેમને રાંધતા આવડે છે   (temane rAMdhatA AvaDe Che )


Negative sentences :-
I do not know eating cake :-  મને કેક ખાતા નથી આવડતું (mane kek khAtA nathI AvaDatuM)
You do not know swimming :-  તને તરતા નથી આવડતું  (tane taratA nathI AvaDatuM)
He does not know Japanese   :-  એને જાપાનીઝ બોલતા નથી આવડતી  (ene jApAnIjh bolatA nathI AvaDatI)
He(polite) does not knows cooking    :- તેમને રાંધતા નથી આવડતું  (temane rAMdhatA nathI AvaDatuM)

Questions :- 
Do you know playing cricket ?  :- શું તને ક્રિકેટ રમતા આવડે છે ? (shuM tane krikeT ramatA AvaDe Che ?)
Do you know killing  mosquitoes :- શું તને મચ્છર મારતા આવડે છે ?  (shuM tane machChar mAratA AvaDe Che ?)


Questions in negative way :- 
Don't you know playing cricket ?  :- શું તને ક્રિકેટ નથી આવડતું ? (shuM tane krikeT nathI AvaDatuM)
Don't you know killing  mosquitoes :- શું તને મચ્છર મારતા નથી આવડતાં ? (shuM tane machChar mAratA nathI AvaDatAM)

Sentences in past tense
Consider statement in past tense “She knew dancing before”. This is something like saying “She used to know dancing before”.  Gujarati form is closer to this way of saying

She used to know dancing before :- એને પહેલાં નાચતા આવડતું હતું  (ene pahelAM nAchatA AvaDatuM hatuM)
They knew talking :- તેમને બોલતા આવડતું હતું  (temane bolatA AvaDatuM hatuM)

She did not know dancing before :- એને પહેલાં નાચતા આવડતું નહોતું  (ene pahelAM nAchatA AvaDatuM nahotuM)
They did not know talking :- તેમને બોલતા આવડતું નહોતું  (temane bolatA AvaDatuM nahotuM)



Using "To know" for some person.
We say "I know Mr. Ram","He knows me" etc.
So when you are referring to some person, then you will use verb ઓળખવું (oLakhavuM).  


Preposition "To" is used with person who is referred.
Verb form is created as per subject/doer of action.
e.g.
I know you -> હું તને ઓળખું છું ( huM tane oLakhuM ChuM
You know me -> તું મને ઓળખે છે ( tuM mane oLakhe Che )
He knows Mr. Ram :- એ શ્રી. રામ ને ઓળખે છે ( e shrI. rAm ne oLakhe Che  )

Listen in this lesson online at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=obJ0t9_BLg4

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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