Tuesday, 24 December 2013

Which-That / What-That sentences in Gujarati

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From title it might not be clear what I am going to teach in this article. Example will make it clear what I mean by this title.

Take this sentence :-
1) I could not understand what you just said.
2) Which fruit you want, point your finger to that
3) When you come I feel happy
4) what is in your mind, tell me that.

Here we used words “what”,” Which”,”When”,”what”. These are words used for WH-questions. But here they are not exactly used for questions. 

Here sentences have two parts “condition” and "post-condition”. WH-question words are used to specify “condition” part.

It is analogous to “if-then” sentences.

We have already seen synonyms for WH-questions in Gujarati in this lesson
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/11/asking-wh-questions-in-gujarati.html
So you will be able to use these words and translate above sentences.
e.g.
1) I could not understand what you said.
તેં શું કહ્યું એ મને સમજાયું નથી (teM shuM kahyuM mane samajAyuM nathI)

2) Which fruit you want, show me that.
તમારે કયું ફળ જોઇએ એ મને બતાવો (tamAre kayuM phaL joie e mane batAvo)

But there is other form of creating such sentences. They are using pairs :- જે-તે (je-te), જ્યાં-ત્યાં(jyAM-tyAM) etc.

So when we are using “તે” in post-condition part then we will use its companion viz. “જે” in condition part.
So when we are using “ત્યાં” in post-condition part then we will use its companion viz. “જ્યાં” in condition part.
etc.
e.g.
I could not understand what you just said.
તેં જે કહ્યું તે મને સમજાયું નથી (teM je kahyuM te mane samajAyuM nathI)

Below I have listed such pairs. As you can observer, replacing ત(t) by જ(j) makes it's companion. So you can create similar words not mentioned in this table. 


Pronoun/word in English
Pronoun in Gujarati 
Its companion in “condition" part Gujarati 
He / She/It/This/That  
તે(te)

જે (je)
They  / polite form
તેઓ (teo)
જેઓ (jeo)
that time
ત્યારે  (tyAre)

જ્યારે  (jyAre)

this/ that way
જેવો  (jevo)
તેવો  (tevo)

This many / much
જેટલું   (jeTaluM )
તેટલું  (teTaluM)

Here/there
જ્યાં  (jyAM)

ત્યાં  (tyAM)



Examples :- 
1) I could not understand what you said.
તેં જે કહ્યું તે મને સમજાયું નથી (teM je kahyuM te mane samajAyuM nathI)

2) When you come I feel happy
જ્યારે તું આવે છે ત્યારે મને ખુશી થાય છે(jyAre tuM Ave Che tyAre mane khushI thAy Che)

3) what is in your mind, tell me that.
તારા મનમાં જે છે તે મને કેહ(tArA manamAM je Che te mane keh)

4)Which fruit you want, show me that.
તારે જે ફળ જોઇએ તે મને બતાવ (tAre je phaL joie te mane batAv)


5) Go back, the way you have come
તું જેવો આવ્યો છે તેવો પાછા જા (tuM jevo Avyo Che tevo pAChA jA)

The form of “companion” will be created similar to main word using rules we have been studying in many previous articles like prepositions.

e.g.
to whom -> જેને-તેને (jene-tene)
with whom -> જેની સાથે- તેની સાથે (jenI sAthe- tenI sAthe)
from where -> જ્યાંથી-ત્યાંથી (jyAMthI-tyAMthI)
etc.

Sentences :-
1) Give it to him, who wants it
જેને જોઇએ તેને આપો  (jene joie tene Apo )
2) tell me about them whom you read about :-
જેના વિષે તેં વાચ્યું તેના વિષે મને કેહ (jenA viShe teM vAchyuM tenA viShe mane keh)

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Sometimes we use words “wherever”, “whenever”,”whichever” e.g.
Wherever you go I will come.
Whichever menu food like, you order it.

In Gujarati, repeating the companion word will give the effect of “-ever” in English
e.g.
Whichever (for neutral):-  જે જે  (je je )
Wherever :- જ્યાં જ્યાં (jyAM jyAM)

Sentence example :-
1) Wherever you will go I will come :-  
તું જ્યાં જ્યાં તું જઈશ ત્યાં ત્યાં હું આવીશ  (tuM jyAM jyAM tuM jaIsh tyAM tyAM huM AvIsh )
2) Whichever vegetables you want, you buy it :- 
તારે જે જે શાક જોઇએ તે તે તું ખરીદ (tAre je je shAk joie te te tuM kharId)
3) Whenever you call he will answer :- 
તું જ્યારે જ્યારે ફોન કરીશ ત્યારે ત્યારે હું જવાબ આપીશ (tuM jyAre jyAre phon karIsh tyAre tyAre huM javAb ApIsh)

Listen in this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-c1IrGp5pI

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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