Thursday, 26 December 2013

Adjectives made from verbs in Gujarati

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Adjectives from verb indicating general behavior
In English we use phrases like “Speaking Doll”, “Talking book” etc. 
Here form of verbs speak, talk are used as kind of adjective. 
In Gujarati same can be achieved by appending નારો (nAro) to verb, as a masculine adjective. 
As this adjective ends with ઓ (o) form of verb will change as per gender. 
Refer lesson of adjectives for this.


Examples :-  
Masculine
Talking boy     :- બોલનારો છોકરો  (bolanAro Chokaro )
Rotating fan    :-ફરનારો પંખો  (pharanAro paMkho )

Feminine
Talking girl   :- બોલનારી છોકરી  (bolanArI ChokarI )
Moving chair    :- હલનારી ખુરશી   (halanArI khurashI  )
Flying sparrow :- ઉડનારી ચકલી  (uDanArI chakalI )

Neuter
Talking book    :- બોલનારું પુસ્તક   (bolanAruM pustak  )
Moving tree      :- હલનારું ઝાડ  (halanAruM jhAD )

Sometimes નાર(nAr) is appended to verb and it is used in all genders and multiplicities. 
e.g. બોલનાર પુસ્તક (bolanAr pustak), ઉડનાર ચકલી (uDanAr chakalI) etc.

Oblique form of these adjective is created by adding નાર(nAr) to verbWhen preposition is added with noun, oblique form of above adjectives are used.
e.g. Talking book    :- બોલનારું પુસ્તક (bolanAruM pustak  )
For talking book :- બોલનાર પુસ્તક માટે (bolanAr pustak mATe)

Flying sparrow :- ઉડનારી ચકલી  (uDanArI chakalI )
About flying sparrow :- ઉડનાર ચકલી વિષે  (uDanAr chakalI viShe)


Such adjectives can also created by appending તો(to) or its form depending on genders. As you would have guessed suffixes are  તો-તી-તું-તા-તી-તાં (to-tI-tuM-tA-tI-tAM) which follows pattern ઓ-ઈ-ઉં-આ-ઈ-આં discussed in http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/o-i-um-i-am-yo-i-yum-ya-i-yam-rule.html
e.g. Speaking boy -> બોલતો છોકરો (bolato Chokaro)
Speaking girl -> બોલતી છોકરી ( bolatI ChokarI )
Speaking book -> બોલતું પુસ્તક ( bolatuM pustak )
Moving toys -> હલતાં રમકડાં (halatAM ramakaDAM)

2) Adjectives from verb indicating completed action
e.g. Spoken word, finished meal etc.

2a) In Gujarati such adjectives are created by suffixing form of "એલો"(elo) to verb. (actually stem of verb in past tense )
e.g. Spoken:- બોલ (bol) + એલો (elo ) -> બોલેલો bolelo)
Done:- કર (kar) + એલો (elo) -> કરેલો   (karelo)

2b) If verb stem does not end with sound અ(a) then suffix is યેલો(yelo)
e.g. "To see"  i.e. જોવું(jovuM
જો(jo) + યેલો(yelo) ->  જોયેલો (joyelo)
"To sing" i.e. ગાવું(gAvuM)
ગા(gA) + યેલો(yelo) ->  ગાયેલો (gAyelo)

2c) For verb "To go" i.e. જવું(javuM) in past tense is ગયો(gayo),ગયી(gayI) etc. i.e. stem changes to ગ(g) so adjective is ગયેલો(gayelo)

2d) For few verbs past tense is created with suffix ધો(dho),ધી(dhI),ધું(dhuM).
For such verbs suffix for adjective is ધેલો(dhelo).
e.g. To eat -> ખાવું(khAvuM) Its simple past tense is ખાધો(khAdho), ખાધી (khAdhI) etc. 
So adjective is 

ખા(khA) +  ધેલો (dhelo) ->  ખાધેલો ( khAdhelo )

e.g. To drink -> પીવું(pIvuM) Its simple past tense is પીધું(pIdhuM),પીધી(pIdhI) etc.
So adjective is 
પી(pI) +  ધેલો (dhelo) ->  પીધેલો ( pIdhelo )

Similarly you can create adjective for other verbs.

Needless to say, As this adjective ends with ઓ (o) form of verb will change as per gender.
e.g. 
ખાધેલો-ખાધેલી-ખાધેલું-ખાધેલા-ખાધેલી-ખાધેલાં
(khAdhelo-khAdhelI-khAdheluM-khAdhelA-khAdhelI-khAdhelAM)

બોલેલો-બોલેલી-બોલેલું-બોલેલા-બોલેલી-બોલેલાં 
(bolelo-bolelI-boleluM-bolelA-bolelI-bolelAM)  etc.


work which was done:- કરેલું કામ (kareluM kAm)
eaten cake :- ખાધેલી કેક (khAdhelI kek)
seen book :- જોયેલું પુસ્તક (joyeluM pustak)
Question which you asked -> તેં કરેલો સવાલ  (teM karelo savAl )
Song which he sung -> એણે ગાયેલું ગીત (eNe gAyeluM gIt)
  
This adjective is many times used instead of regular past perfect tense tense.
e.g. 
I had seen -> મેં જોયો હતો (meM joyo hato ) OR મેં જોયેલો (meM joyelo)
You had done work -> તેં કામ કર્યું હતું  (teM kAm karyuM hatuM) OR
                                તેં કામ કરેલું (teM kAm kareluM)
Leader had given order -> નેતાએ આદેશ આપ્યો હતો (netAe Adesh Apyo hato ) OR
નેતાએ આદેશ આપેલો ( netAe Adesh Apelo )

Listen in this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9fNwZ52NSK4



 

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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